Friday, August 31, 2012

Ivy League perverts require nude photos of every college student be posted online for all the world to see...forever



How would you like nude photos from your college days posted online forever -- by your college? This makes the current Penn State pedophile scandal pale in comparison.



Nazi concentration camp inmates? No, just your political dick taters from Yale, Harvard, Princeton and Bohemian Grove.



Schools involved

Harvard University
Mount Holyoke College
Princeton University
Radcliffe College
Smith College
Swarthmore College
Vassar College
Wellesley College
Yale University


Google for photos at your own risk. The NY Times article is written by the same guy who videotaped the first undercover video of Yale Skull & Bones ritual human sacrifice.


Obamacare requires nude photos be taken of every airline passenger then posted online for all the world to see




THE GREAT IVY LEAGUE NUDE POSTURE PHOTO SCANDAL

By RON ROSENBAUM
January 15, 1995
New York Times

ONE AFTERNOON IN THE LATE 1970's, deep in the labyrinthine interior of a massive Gothic tower in New Haven, an unsuspecting employee of Yale University opened a long-locked room in the Payne Whitney Gymnasium and stumbled upon something shocking and disturbing.

Shocking, because what he found was an enormous cache of nude photographs, thousands and thousands of photographs of young men in front, side and rear poses. Disturbing, because on closer inspection the photos looked like the record of a bizarre body-piercing ritual: sticking out from the spine of each and every body was a row of sharp metal pins.

The employee who found them was mystified. The athletic director at the time, Frank Ryan, a former Cleveland Browns quarterback new to Yale, was mystified. But after making some discreet inquiries, he found out what they were -- and took swift action to burn them. He called in a professional, a document-disposal expert, who initiated a two-step torching procedure. First, every single one of the many thousands of photographs was fed into a shredder, and then each of the shreds was fed to the flames, thereby insuring that not a single intact or recognizable image of the nude Yale students -- some of whom had gone on to assume positions of importance in government and society -- would survive.

It was the Bonfire of the Best and the Brightest, and the assumption was that the last embarrassing reminders of a peculiar practice, which masqueraded as science and now looked like a kind of kinky voodoo ritual, had gone up in smoke. The assumption was wrong. Thousands upon thousands of photos from Yale and other elite schools survive to this day.

When I first embarked on my quest for the lost nude "posture photos," I could not decide whether to think of the phenomenon as a scandal or as an extreme example of academic folly -- of what happens when well-intentioned institutions allow their reverence for the reigning conjectures of scientific orthodoxy to persuade them to do things that seem silly or scandalous in retrospect. And now that I've found them, I'm still not sure whether outrage or laughter is the more appropriate reaction. Your response, dear reader, may depend on whether your nude photograph is among them. And if you attended Yale, Mount Holyoke, Vassar, Smith or Princeton -- to name a few of the schools involved -- from the 1940's through the 1960's, there's a chance that yours may be.

Your response may also depend on how you feel about the fact that some of these schools made nude or seminude photographs of you available to the disciples of what many now regard as a pseudo-science without asking permission. And on how you feel about an obscure archive in Washington making them available for researchers to study.

While investigating the strange odyssey of the missing nude "posture photos," I found that the issue is, in every respect, a very touchy matter -- indeed, a kind of touchstone for registering the uneven evolution of attitudes toward body, race and gender in the past half-century.

UP YOUR LEGS FOR YALE

I personally have posed nude only twice in my life. The second time -- for a John and Yoko film titled "Up Your Legs Forever," which has been screened at the Whitney -- I was one of many, it was Art, and let's leave it at that. But the first time was even more strange and bizarre because of its strait-laced Ivy setting, its preliberation context -- and yes, because of the metal pins stuck on my body.

One fall afternoon in the mid-60's, shortly after I arrived in New Haven to begin my freshman year at Yale, I was summoned to that sooty Gothic shrine to muscular virtue known as Payne Whitney Gym. I reported to a windowless room on an upper floor, where men dressed in crisp white garments instructed me to remove all of my clothes. And then -- and this is the part I still have trouble believing -- they attached metal pins to my spine. There was no actual piercing of skin, only of dignity, as four-inch metal pins were affixed with adhesive to my vertebrae at regular intervals from my neck down. I was positioned against a wall; a floodlight illuminated my pin-spiked profile and a camera captured it.

It didn't occur to me to object: I'd been told that this "posture photo" was a routine feature of freshman orientation week. Those whose pins described a too violent or erratic postural curve were required to attend remedial posture classes.

The procedure did seem strange. But I soon learned that it was a long-established custom at most Ivy League and Seven Sisters schools. George Bush, George Pataki, Brandon Tartikoff and Bob Woodward were required to do it at Yale. At Vassar, Meryl Streep; at Mount Holyoke, Wendy Wasserstein; at Wellesley, Hillary Rodham and Diane Sawyer. All of them -- whole generations of the cultural elite -- were asked to pose. But however much the colleges tried to make this bizarre procedure seem routine, its undeniable strangeness engendered a scurrilous strain of folklore.

THE MISMEASURE OF MAN

There were several salacious stories circulating at Yale back in the 60's. Most common was the report that someone had broken into a photo lab in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and stolen the negatives of that year's Vassar posture nudes, which were supposedly for sale on the Ivy League black market or available to the initiates of Skull and Bones. Little did I know how universal this myth was.

"Ah, yes, the famous rumored stolen Vassar posture pictures," Nora Ephron (Wellesley '62) recalled when I spoke with her. "But don't forget the famous rumored stolen Wellesley posture photos."

"Wellesley too?"

"Oh, yes," she said. "It's one of those urban legends."

She can laugh about it now, she said, but in retrospect the whole idea that she and all her smart classmates went along with being photographed in this way dismays her. "We were idiots," she said. "Idiots!"

Sally Quinn (Smith '63), the Washington writer, expressed alarm when I first reached her. "God, I'm relieved," she said. "I thought you were going to tell me you found mine. You always thought when you did it that one day they'd come back to haunt you. That 25 years later, when your husband was running for President, they'd show up in Penthouse."

Another Wellesley alumna, Judith Martin, author of the Miss Manners column, told me she's "appalled in retrospect" that the college forced this practice on their freshmen. "Why weren't we more appalled at the time?" she wondered. Nonetheless, she confessed to making a kind of good-natured extortionate use of the posture-photo specter herself.

"I do remember making a reunion speech in which I offered to sell them back to people for large donations. And there were a lot of people who turned pale before they realized it was a joke."

Distinguishing between joke and reality is often difficult in posture-photo lore. Consider the astonishing rumor Ephron clued me in to, a story she assured me she'd heard from someone very close to the source:

"There was a guy, an adjunct professor of sociology who was working on a grant for the tobacco industry. And what I heard when I was at Wellesley was that, using Harvard posture photos, he had proved conclusively that the more manly you are, the more you smoked. And I believe the criterion for manliness was the obvious one."

"The obvious one?"

"I assume -- what else could it have been?"

In fact, the study was real. I was able to track it down, although the conclusion it reached about Harvard men was somewhat different from what Ephron recalled. But, clearly, the nude-posture-photo practice engendered heated fantasies in both sexes. Perhaps in the otherwise circumspect Ivy League-Seven Sisters world, nude posture photos were the licensed exception to propriety that spawned licentious fantasies. Fantasies that were to lie unremembered, or at least unpublicized until. . . .

THE RETURN OF THE REPRESSED

It was Naomi Wolf, author of "The Beauty Myth," who opened the Pandora's box of posture-photo controversy. In that book and in a 1992 Op-Ed piece in The Times, Wolf (Yale '84) bitterly attacked Dick Cavett (Yale '55) for a joke he'd made at Wolf's graduation ceremonies. According to Wolf, who'd never had a posture photo taken (the practice was discontinued at Yale in 1968), Cavett took the microphone and told the following anecdote:

"When I was an undergraduate . . . there were no women [ at Yale ] . The women went to Vassar. At Vassar they had nude photographs taken of women in gym class to check their posture. One year the photos were stolen and turned up for sale in New Haven's red-light district." His punchline: "The photos found no buyers."

Wolf was horrified. Cavett, she wrote in her book, "transposed us for a moment out of the gentle quadrangle where we had been led to believe we were cherished, and into the tawdry district four blocks away, where stolen photographs of our naked bodies would find no buyers."

Cavett responded, in a letter to The Times, by dismissing the joke as an innocuous "example of how my Yale years showed up in my long-forgotten nightclub act."

Wolf's horrified account attests to the totemic power of the posture-photo legend. But little did she know, little did Cavett know, how potentially sinister the entire phenomenon really was. No one knew until. . . .

THE NAZI-POSTURE-PHOTO ALLEGATION

This is where things get really strange. Shortly after Cavett's reply, George Hersey, a respected art history professor at Yale, wrote a letter to The Times that ran under the headline "A Secret Lies Hidden in Vassar and Yale Nude 'Posture Photos.' " Sounding an ominous note, Hersey declared that the photos "had nothing to do with posture . . . that is only what we were told."

Hersey went on to say that the pictures were actually made for anthropological research: "The reigning school of the time, presided over by E. A. Hooton of Harvard and W. H. Sheldon" -- who directed an institute for physique studies at Columbia University -- "held that a person's body, measured and analyzed, could tell much about intelligence, temperament, moral worth and probable future achievement. The inspiration came from the founder of social Darwinism, Francis Galton, who proposed such a photo archive for the British population."

And then Hersey evoked the specter of the Third Reich:

"The Nazis compiled similar archives analyzing the photos for racial as well as characterological content (as did Hooton). . . . The Nazis often used American high school yearbook photographs for this purpose. . . . The American investigators planned an archive that could correlate each freshman's bodily configuration ('somatotype') and physiognomy with later life history. That the photos had no value as pornography is a tribute to their resolutely scientific nature."

A truly breathtaking missive. What Hersey seemed to be saying was that entire generations of America's ruling class had been unwitting guinea pigs in a vast eugenic experiment run by scientists with a master-race hidden agenda. My classmate Steve Weisman, the Times editor who first called my attention to the letter, pointed out a fascinating corollary: The letter managed in a stroke to confer on some of the most overprivileged people in the world the one status distinction it seemed they'd forever be denied -- victim.

My first stop in what would turn out to be a prolonged and eventful quest for the truth about the posture photos was Professor Hersey's office in New Haven. A thoughtful, civilized scholar, Hersey did not seem prone to sensationalism. But he showed me a draft chapter from his forthcoming book on the esthetics of racism that went even further than the allegations in his letter to The Times. I was struck by one passage in particular:

"From the outset, the purpose of these 'posture photographs' was eugenic. The data accumulated, says Hooton, will eventually lead on to proposals to 'control and limit the production of inferior and useless organisms.' Some of the latter would be penalized for reproducing . . . or would be sterilized. But the real solution is to be enforced better breeding -- getting those Exeter and Harvard men together with their corresponding Wellesley, Vassar and Radcliffe girls."

In other words, a kind of eugenic dating service, "Studs" for the cultural elite. But my talk with Hersey left key questions unanswered. What was the precise relationship between theorists like Hooton and Sheldon (the man who actually took tens of thousands of those nude posture photos) and the Ivy League and Seven Sisters schools whose student bodies were photographed? Were the schools complicit or were they simply dupes? And finally: What became of the photographs?

As for the last question, Hersey thought there'd be no trouble locating the photographs. He assumed that "they can probably be found with Sheldon's research papers" in one of the several academic institutions with which he had been associated. But most of those institutions said that they had burned whatever photos they'd had. Harley P. Holden, curator of Harvard's archives, said that from the 1880's to the 1940's the university had its own posture-photo program in which some 3,500 pictures of its students were taken. Most were destroyed 15 or 20 years ago "for privacy scruples," Holden said. Nonetheless, quite a few Harvard nudes can be found illustrating Sheldon's book on body types, the "Atlas of Men." Radcliffe took posture photos from 1931 to 1961; the curator there said that most of them had been destroyed (although some might be missing) and that none were taken by Sheldon.

Hersey insisted that there was a treasure trove of Sheldon photographs out there to be found. He gave me the phone number of a man in New Mexico named Ellery Lanier, a friend of Sheldon, the posture-photo mastermind. "He might know where they ended up," Hersey told me.

Going from Hersey to Lanier meant stepping over the threshold from contemporary academic orthodoxy into the more exotic precincts of Sheldon subculture, a loose-knit network of his surviving disciples. A number of them keep the Sheldon legacy alive, hoping for a revival.

Lanier, an articulate, seventyish doctoral student at New Mexico State, told me he'd gotten to know Sheldon at Columbia in the late 1940's, when the two of them were hanging out with Aldous Huxley and Christopher Isherwood and their crew. (Sheldon had a prophetic mystical side, which revealed itself in Huxleian philosophic treatises on the "Promethean will." Sheldon was also, Lanier told me, "the world's leading expert on the history of the American penny.") At that time, Sheldon was at the apex of his now-forgotten renown. Life magazine ran a cover story in 1951 on Sheldon's theory of somatotypes.

While the popular conception of Sheldonism has it that he divided human beings into three types -- skinny, nervous "ectomorphs"; fat and jolly "endomorphs"; confident, buffed "mesomorphs" -- what he actually did was somewhat more complex. He believed that every individual harbored within him different degrees of each of the three character components. By using body measurements and ratios derived from nude photographs, Sheldon believed he could assign every individual a three-digit number representing the three components, components that Sheldon believed were inborn -- genetic -- and remained unwavering determinants of character regardless of transitory weight change. In other words, physique equals destiny.

It was the pop-psych flavor of the month for a while; Cosmopolitan magazine published quizzes about how to understand your husband on the basis of somatotype. Ecto-, meso- and endomorphic have entered the language, although few scientists these days give credence to Sheldon's claims. "Half the textbooks in [ his ] area fail to take [ him ] seriously," remarked one academician in a 1992 paper on Sheldon's legacy. Others, like Hans Eysenck, the British psychologist, have suggested that Sheldon wasn't really doing science at all, that he was just winging it, that there was "little theoretical foundation for the observed findings."

Nonetheless, in the late 40's and early 50's, Sheldonism seemed mainstream, and Sheldon took advantage of that to approach Ivy League schools. Many, like Harvard, already had a posture-photo tradition. But it was at Wellesley College in the late 1920's that concern about postural correctness metamorphosed into a cottage industry with pretensions to science. The department of hygiene circulated training films about posture measurement to other women's colleges, which took up the practice, as did some "progressive" high schools and elementary schools. (By the time Hillary Rodham arrived on the Wellesley campus, women were allowed to have their pictures taken only partly nude. Although Lanier assumes that Sheldon took the Rodham photo, Wellesley archivists believe that Sheldon didn't take posture photos at their school.)

What Sheldon did was appropriate the ritual. Lanier confirmed that the Ivy League "posture photos" Sheldon used were "part of a facade or cover-up for what we were really doing" -- which would make the schools less complicit. But Lanier stoutly defended "what we were really doing" as valid science. As part of his Ph.D. project, he has been examining Sheldonian ecto-, meso- and endomorphic categories and the "time horizon" of the individual.

"Conflicting temporal horizon can account for all the divorce we have today," Lanier said. "The Woody Allen-Mia Farrow-type thing."

Huh? Woody and Mia?

"I'm trying to find some clue to the breakup because of the discrepancies between their time focus," Lanier said.

"Well, Woody's certainly ectomorphic, but. . . . "

"No, let me correct you," Lanier said tartly. "Woody Allen creates an illusion. He puts on a big show of being ectomorphic, but this is all a cover-up because he's quite mesomorphic."

"I think he would be surprised to hear that."

"I know," Lanier said. "He wouldn't want to admit it, but the only way you can know this is by looking at photographs very carefully."

Lanier also filled me in on the cause of Sheldon's downfall: his never completed, partly burned "Atlas of Women." In attempting to compile what would have been the companion volume to his "Atlas of Men," which included hundreds of nude Harvard men to illustrate each of the three-digit body types, Sheldon made the strategic mistake of taking his photo show on the road.

What happened was this: In September 1950, Sheldon and his team descended on Seattle, where the University of Washington had agreed to play host to his project. He'd begun taking nude pictures of female freshmen, but something went wrong. One of them told her parents about the practice. The next morning, a battalion of lawyers and university officials stormed Sheldon's lab, seized every photo of a nude woman, convicted the images of shamefulness and sentenced them to burning. The angry crew then shoveled the incendiary film into an incinerator. A short-lived controversy broke out: Was this a book burning? A witch hunt? Was Professor Sheldon's nude photography a legitimate scientific investigation into the relationship between physique and temperament, the raw material of serious scholarship? Or just raw material -- pornography masquerading as science?

They burned a few thousand photos in Seattle. Thousands more were burned at Harvard, Vassar and Yale in the 60's and 70's, when the colleges phased out the posture-photo practice. But thousands more escaped the flames, tens of thousands that Sheldon took at Harvard, Vassar, Yale and elsewhere but sequestered in his own archives. And what became of the archives? Lanier didn't know, but he said they were out there somewhere. He dug up the phone number of a man who was once the lawyer for Sheldon's estate, a Mr. Joachim Weissfeld in Providence, R.I. "Maybe he'll know," Lanier said.

At this point, the posture-photo quest turned into a kind of high-speed parody of "The Aspern Papers." The lawyer in Rhode Island professed ignorance as to the whereabouts or even continued existence of the lost Sheldonian archives, but he did put me in touch with the last living leaf on the Sheldon family tree, a niece by marriage who lived in Warwick, R.I. She, too, said she didn't know what had become of the Sheldon photos, but she did give me the name of an 84-year-old man living in Columbus, Ohio, who had worked very closely with Sheldon, one Roland D. Elderkin -- a man who, in fact, had shot many of the lost photos himself and who promised to reveal their location to me.

THE MYSTERY SOLVED

With Roland D. Elderkin, we're now this close to the late, great Sheldon himself. "There was nobody closer," Elderkin declared shortly after I reached him at his rooming house in Columbus. "I was his soul mate."

Elderkin described himself a bit mournfully as "just an 84-year-old man living alone in a furnished room." But he once had a brush with greatness, and you can hear it in his recollection of Sheldon and his grand project.

To Elderkin, Sheldon was no mere body-typer: he was a true philosophe, "the first to introduce holistic perspective" to American science, a proto-New Ager. Elderkin became Sheldon's research associate, his trusty cameraman and a kind of private eye, compiling case histories of Sheldon's posture nudes to confirm Sheldon's theories about physique and destiny. He also witnessed Sheldon's downfall.

The Bonfire of the Nude Coed Photos in Seattle wasn't Sheldon's only public burning, Elderkin told me: "He went through a number of furors over women. A similar thing later happened at Pembroke, the women's college at Brown." In each case, the fact that female nudes were involved kindled the flame against Sheldon. Toward the end, Sheldon became a kind of pathetic Willy Loman-esque figure as he wandered America far from the elite Ivy halls that had once housed him, seeking a place he could complete the photography for his "Atlas of Women."

Rejected and scorned, out of fashion with academic officialdom, Sheldon is still a hero to Roland D. Elderkin. And so when Sheldon died in 1977, "a lonely old man who did nothing his last years but sit in his room and read detective stories," Elderkin said, "there was nobody else to carry on." It fell to Elderkin to find a final resting place for the huge archives of Sheldon's posture nudes.

It wasn't easy, he said. Elderkin went "up and down the East Coast trying to peddle them" to places like Harvard and Columbia, which once welcomed Sheldon but now wanted nothing to do with nude photos and the controversy trailing them. "That's how I found out about the burning at Pembroke," Elderkin recalled. "I was trying to get someone at Brown to accept them, and he said, 'That filth? We already burned the ones we had.' "

"And you know where they are now?" I asked incredulously. "Hersey and Lanier said they didn't know."

"Sure I do," he said. "I was the one that finally found a home for them."

And then he told me where.

BEFORE WE PROCEED TO the location of the treasure itself, it might be wise to pause and ponder the wisdom of opening such a Pandora's box. With scholars like Hersey alleging eugenic motives behind Sheldon's project, with the self-images of so many of the cultural elite at stake, would exposure of the hidden hoard be defensible? Is there anyone, aside from lifelong Sheldon disciples, who will step forward to defend Sheldon's posture photos?

Of course there is: Camille Paglia.

"I'm very interested in somatotypes," she said. "I constantly use the term in my work. The word 'ectomorph' is used repeatedly in 'Sexual Personae' about Spenser's Apollonian angels. That's one of the things I'm trying to do: to reconsider these classification schemes, to rescue them from their tainting by Nazi ideology. It's always been a part of classicism. It's sort of like we've lost the old curiosity about physical characteristics, physical differences. And I maintain it's bourgeois prudery.

"See, I'm interested in looking at women's breasts! I'm interested in looking at men's penises! I maintain that at the present date, Penthouse, Playboy, Hustler, serve the same cultural functions as the posture photos."

With these words ringing in my ears, I set out to see if I could open up the Sheldon archives.

THE SECRET IS BARED

Down a dimly lit back corridor of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, far from the dinosaur displays, is a branch of the Smithsonian not well known to the public: the National Anthropological Archives.

Although it contains a rich and strange assortment of archival treasures, it's particularly notable for the number of Native Americans who travel here to investigate centuries-old anthropological records, poring over them in a cramped, windowless research room whose walls are hung with stylized illustrations of tribal rituals painted by one Chief Blue Eagle. It was here that my quest for another kind of tribal illustration -- the taboo images of the blue-blood tribe, the long-lost nude posture photos -- culminated at last.

In 1987, the curators of the National Anthropological Archives acquired the remains of Sheldon's life work, which were gathering dust in "dead storage" in a Goodwill warehouse in Boston. While there were solid archival reasons for making the acquisition, the curators are clearly aware that they harbor some potentially explosive material in their storage rooms. And they did not make it easy for me to gain access.

On my first visit, I was informed by a good-natured but wary supervisor that the restrictive grant of Sheldon's materials by his estate would permit me to review only the written materials in the Sheldon archives. The actual photographs, he said, were off-limits. To see them, I would have to petition the chief of archivists. Determined to pursue the matter to the bitter end, I began the process of applying for permission.

Meanwhile, I plunged into the written material hoping to find answers to several unresolved mysteries. Although I did not find substantiation in those files for Hersey's belief that Sheldon was actively engaged in a master-race eugenic project, I did find stunning confirmation of Hersey's charge that Sheldon held racist views.

In Box 43 I came across a document never referred to in any of the literature on Sheldon I'd seen. It was a faded offprint of a 1924 Sheldon study, "The Intelligence of Mexican Children." In it are damning assertions presented as scientific truisms that "Negro intelligence" comes to a "standstill at about the 10th year," Mexican at about age 12. To the author of such sentiments, America's elite institutions entrusted their student bodies.

Another box held clues to the truth behind Nora Ephron's tale about smoking and organ size. It turned out to be true that a research arm of the tobacco industry had sponsored studies on the relationship between masculinity and smoking, and that the studies had involved Sheldonian posture photos of Harvard men -- although there is no evidence that the criterion of masculinity was the "obvious one" referred to by Ephron. I located a fascinating report on this research in a December 1959 issue of the respected journal Science, a report titled "Masculinity and Smoking." According to the article, and contrary to the rumor, it is "not strength but weakness of the masculine component" that is "more frequent in the heavier smokers." Here, perhaps, is the most profound cultural legacy of the Sheldonian posture-photo phenomenon: the blueprint for the sexual iconography of tobacco advertising. If, in fact, heavy smokers looked more like Harvard nerds than Marlboro men, why not use advertising imagery to make Harvard nerds feel like virile cowboys when they smoked?

Finally and most telling, I found a letter nearly four decades old that did something nothing else in the files did. It gave a glimpse, a clue to the feelings of the subjects of Sheldon's research, particularly the women. I found the letter in a file of correspondence between Sheldon and various phys ed directors at women's colleges who were providing Sheldon with bodies for the ill-fated "Atlas of Women." In this letter, an official at Denison University in Granville, Ohio, was responding to Sheldon's request to rephotograph the female freshmen he had photographed the year before. Something had apparently gone wrong with the technical side of the earlier shoot. But the official refused to allow Sheldon to reshoot the women, declaring that "to require them to pose for another [ nude posture photo ] would create insurmountable psychological problems."

Insurmountable psychological problems. Suddenly the subjects of Sheldon's photography leaped into the foreground: the shy girl, the fat girl, the religiously conservative, the victim of inappropriate parental attention. Here, perhaps, Naomi Wolf has a point. In a culture that already encourages women to scrutinize their bodies critically, the first thing that happens to these women when they arrive at college is an intrusive, uncomfortable, public examination of their nude bodies.

THREE MONTHS LATER, I FINALLY SUCCEEDED IN gaining permission to study the elusive posture photos. As I sat at my desk in the reading room, under a portrait of Chief Blue Eagle, the long-sought cache materialized. A curator trundled in a library cart from the storage facility. Teetering on top of the cart were stacks of big, gray cardboard boxes. The curator handed me a pair of the white cotton gloves that researchers must use to handle archival material.

The contents of the boxes were described in an accompanying "Finder's Aid" in this fashion:

BOX 90 YALE UNIVERSITY CLASS OF 1971

Negatives. Full length views of nude freshmen men, front, back and rear. Includes weight, height, previous or maximum weight, with age, name, or initials.

BOX 95 MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE PHOTOGRAPHS

Negatives. Made in 1950. Full length views of nude women, front, back and rear. Includes height, weight, date and age. Includes some photographs marked S.P.C.

Among the other classes listed in the Finder's Aid were: the Yale classes of '50, '63, '64, '66 and '71; the Princeton class of '52; Smith '50 and '52; Vassar '42 and '52; Mount Holyoke '53; Swarthmore '51; University of California '61 and '67; Hotchkiss '71; Syracuse '50; University of Wisconsin '53; Purdue '53; University of Pennsylvania '51, and Brooklyn College '51 and '52. There were also undated photos from the Oregon Hospital for the Criminally Insane (which I could not distinguish in any way from the Ivy League photos). All told, there were some 20,000 photographs of men -- 9,000 from Yale -- and 7,000 of women.

In flipping through those thousands of images (which were recently transferred to Smithsonian archives in Suitland, Md.), I found surprising testimony to the "insurmountable psychological problems" that the Denison University official had referred to. It took awhile for the "problems" to become apparent, because, as it turned out, I was not permitted to see positive photographs -- only negatives (with no names attached).

A fascinating distinction was being exhibited here, a kind of light-polarity theory of prurience and privacy that absolves the negative image of the naked body of whatever transgressive power it might have in a positive print. There's an intuitive logic to the theory, although here the Sheldon posture-photo phenomenon exposes how fragile are the distinctions we make between the sanctioned and the forbidden images of the body.

As I thumbed rapidly through box after box to confirm that the entries described in the Finder's Aid were actually there, I tried to glance at only the faces. It was a decision that paid off, because it was in them that a crucial difference between the men and the women revealed itself. For the most part, the men looked diffident, oblivious. That's not surprising considering that men of that era were accustomed to undressing for draft physicals and athletic-squad weigh-ins.

But the faces of the women were another story. I was surprised at how many looked deeply unhappy, as if pained at being subjected to this procedure. On the faces of quite a few I saw what looked like grimaces, reflecting pronounced discomfort, perhaps even anger.

I was not much more comfortable myself sitting there in the midst of stacks of boxes of such images. There I was at the end of my quest. I'd tracked down the fabled photographs, but the lessons of the posture-photo ritual were elusive.

"THERE'S A TREMENDOUS LESSON HERE," MISS manners declares. "Which is that one should have sympathy and tolerance for respectable women from whose past naked pictures suddenly show up. One should think of the many times where some woman becomes prominent like Marilyn Monroe and suddenly there are nude pictures in her past. Shouldn't we be a little less condemning of someone in that position?"

A little less condemning of the victims, yes, certainly. (I speak as one myself, although it turned out that my photo was burned in the Yale bonfire of the late 70's.) But what about the perpetrators? What could have possessed so many elite institutions of higher education to turn their student bodies over to the practitioners of what now seems so dubious a science project?

It's a question that baffles the current powers that be at Ivy League schools. The response of Gary Fryer, Yale's spokesman, is representative: "We searched, but there's nobody around now who was involved with the decision." Even so, he assures me, nothing like it could happen again; concerns about privacy have heightened, and, as he puts it, "there's now a Federal law against disclosing anything in a college student's record to any outsider without written permission."

In other words, "We won't get fooled again." Though he is undoubtedly correct that nothing precisely like the posture-photo folly could happen again, it is hard to deny the possibility, the likelihood, that well-meaning people and institutions will get taken in -- are being taken in -- by those who peddle scientific conjecture as certainty. Sheldon's dream of reducing the complexity of human personality and the contingency of human fate to a single number is a recurrent one, as the continuing I.Q. controversy demonstrates. And a reminder that skepticism is still valuable in the face of scientific claims of certainty, particularly in the slippery realms of human behavior.

The rise and fall of "sciences" like Marxist history, Freudian psychology and Keynesian economics suggests that at least some of the beliefs and axioms treated as science today (Rorschach analysis, "rational choice" economics, perhaps) will turn out to have little more validity than nude stick-pin somatotyping.

In the Sheldon rituals, the student test subjects were naked -- but it was the emperors of scientific certainty who had no clothes.
Ron Rosenbaum is a contributing writer for the Magazine.




Up Against the Wall

November 11, 2011
By DICK CAVETT
New York Times

The scene is a freshman room at Yale, mid-’50s. Four occupants. First week of classes.

The dialogue:

“They must be kidding. We’re supposed to go over to the gym and do WHAT?”

“We all have to go over to the gym and have our pictures taken. Naked.”

“C’mon. This isn’t Princeton.” (Laughter.)

“Are you serious about this? Is this April Fools’ Day?”

Of course it was preposterous.

It was also true.

There were several things a Yale freshman was supposed to be able to do. You had to demonstrate in the Olympic-size Yale pool that you could swim 50 yards or be inducted into swimming class. (A sore memory: hearing, while panting, “You made it, Cavett, but if you fell in 51 yards from shore, you’d drown.”)

Who’d have guessed that another requisite for being a true-blue Yalie was, strange as it seemed, good posture. Hence the phrase that yet lives in infamy, “The Posture Pictures.”

Every single member of the freshman class in those days was required to strip for the prying camera. Then they put you up against a graph on the wall and photographed you, front, side and back. Or as I put it years later in a comedy routine I did about this in my early nightclub act — and in an appearance on the old “Merv Griffin Show” — “You got three provocative poses.”

In profile, the subject appeared to have a vertical row of needles sticking out, up and down his spine. In fact, the needles were held in place by adhesive tape and were “non-invasive.” The needles had something to do with the wall graph. There was, in this uncomfortable and decidedly unerotic adventure, no penetration. Mr. Cold Hands, a man whose job it apparently was to affix the needles, pressed the tapes firmly against your bare skin; a bit, I thought, too enthusiastically.

I remember — as a new comedian — killing ‘em on the Griffin show with this subject, and wish I could recall more of my admittedly exaggerated-for-comic-effect punch lines. But it almost doesn’t need any jokes.

One sequence I can recall went, “Some guys hated it; some seemed to enjoy it. One guy tried to go through twice [reasonable laugh]; one guy fainted [sizable laugh]; one guy tried to buy his pictures [laugh]; and one guy tried to get his re-touched [boffo].”

It was cold in there and I had somehow gotten next-to-last in line in my group of embarrassed, mother-nekkid shiverers. Turning to say, “Wish me luck” to the last guy, behind me, I caused the poor fellow to turn crimson. It was awful for both of us. I had caught him, how to say, making an effort to present a more impressive image for the camera. Blushing, he came up with, “There was some lint on it.”

Should anyone think this bizarre undertaking was solely the product of the mind of some demented old sod closeted somewhere in the Yale administration, this coerced participation in a soft-porn enterprise was intermural. And Ivy League-wide.

Of course, the screwball posture pictures practice has been long discontinued, and years ago Harvard announced a total destruction of its boxes of years of photos, as did other schools. And yet diligent journalists have unearthed caches of them over time, still simmering out there.

Think of those who have risen to prominence in all fields whose sheepish full frontals are, many of them, still findable. Actors, judges, presidents, husbands and wives of the prominent.

There are said to be collectors who claim to have prized specimens from the big women’s schools. (Imagine, “I’ll trade you a Meryl Streep for a Hillary Clinton.”)

People are shocked to learn that this was definitely not a boys-only phenomenon. Yes, the young “girls” (as they were still called back then) attending the finest women’s colleges were told to drop their drapery and their drawers and exhibit themselves to the merciless lens.

Getting just a little serious for a moment, there are some astonishing facts here, one being: nobody protested. I never heard of a single case of anyone at any school saying they flatly refused to participate in this loony, outrageous, forced violation of individual privacy.

Somehow it isn’t so surprising that guys played along. (A woman once asked me, “Is it true that men parade around naked in front of each other in locker rooms?” She said women didn’t.)

Is it sexist to think this ordeal may have been more psychologically unpleasant, distressing — even damaging — for young women? Particularly those embarrassed by their less-than-ideal physiques? The awkwardly constructed and the obese?

According to someone who discovered a surviving cache of the racy pix of the young women of either Smith or Wellesley, many exhibit, by their expressions, combinations of acute discomfort, deep embarrassment, humiliation and livid anger. But they “went along.”

But surely not without troubling thoughts about who all gets the treat of ogling these, how many copies are made, what sort of security prevents prankish circulation — and what finally becomes of them.

I’m sure there are conclusions to be drawn here by deeper thinkers than I about obedience to authority, reluctance to rock boats with protest, etc. People hearing of this crazy caper on the part of major American universities say, “I wouldn’t have stood for this for a second!”

If that’s true, why did everybody go along back then? Were admissions committees’ principles of selection inadvertently selecting the meek in vast numbers? Were “the times” so different? Woodstock, “Hair” and countless plays and movies with the naughty bits on view were at least a decade in the future. Is that significant here?

Full disclosure department: I’ve never heard of anyone who saw his own picture. But I did. One of my roommates, Ron Wille, had the dubious honor of having as his scholarship job developing the damned things and sneaked me mine, temporarily. In it, I looked cowed. And there was about it a redolence of something greatly unpleasant, not immediately identified, having to do with the stark lighting (and the stark nakedness) and the chart and the pins that, combined, supplied a whiff of — not to get too melodramatic about it — the concentration camp.

Finally, doesn’t all this vast embarrassment and fuss about a word you stop hearing as a third grader — “posture” — seem just a touch on the nutty side?

If you think so, you may have guessed it. There is another whole, hidden dimension to this story. The word “scandal” applies.

And “sinister” is not entirely inappropriate.

Stay tuned...

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Neil Armstrong assassinated by Obama starwhackers


No un-photoshopped photo exists of Neil Armstrong on the "moon" besides a mere reflection in Buzz Aldrin's vizor

"Neil Armstrong was actually killed by a doctor. He didn't die of a heart attack. He had his physical, and they said, 'You're pretty strong for an 82-year-old, and you've got this little blockage in an artery, why don't you let us do a bypass before you have a heart attack?' And they did a bypass on him and he died of a 'blood clot' from the surgery. These doctors killed Neil Armstrong, they don't get an investigation, they don't get a urine test to see if they are drunk, they don't get a urine test to see if they're on drugs, we don't even know the doctor's name who killed Neil Armstrong."
-Dr Joel Wallach, Alex Jones Show, Hour 3, Minutes 40, 12 Sept 2012



Neil Armstrong bends over for Buzz Aldrin while faking the moon landing in Building 9 at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center

Pirate News Convinces Neil Armstrong Moon Landing Was Faked

LEBANON, OHIO—Apollo 11 mission commander and famed astronaut Neil Armstrong shocked reporters at a press conference Monday, announcing he had been convinced that his historic first step on the moon was part of an elaborate hoax orchestrated by the United States government.


Apollo 11's Buzz Aldrin poses in Hollywood with Joshua Poet singer of the music video "We Never Went To The Moon" directed by Pirate News

According to Armstrong, he was forced to reconsider every single detail of the monumental journey after watching the Hollywood-award-winning YouTube video -- We Never Went To The Moon, and reading consPiracy scientist John Lee's website, Pirate News.


NASA Moon photos fail to show shadows from Apollo landers

"I always wondered why I never dreamed about walking on the Moon," Armstrong replied. "It only took a few carefully crafted paragraphs published by this passionate skeptic of the U.S. government's so-called 'greatest technological achievement' for me to realize I had been living a lie," said a visibly emotional Armstrong, displaying a nervous tic while addressing reporters on the screen porch at his reclusive home.


Top Secret Project Nutmeg moonscape includes Area 51 Air Force base and the Nevada Test and Training Range wildlife killing field

"It has become painfully clear to me that on July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module under the control of my crew did not in fact travel 500,000 miles through deadly cosmic particles, touch down on the radioactive Moon covered with gamma rays baked at 250-degrees and frozen to minus 250-degrees Fahrenheit, then take perfect photographs with a box-stock camera lacking a viewfinder, ushering in a new era for inhumanity during the Vietnam War. Instead, the entire thing was filmed on a soundstage, most likely near Las Vegas."



Armstrong added, "I always wondered why the CIA guys made us wear hoods on our heads when traveling to NASA facilities. They didn't have to give me the needle, but they always did. I really enjoyed taking those naps. I have false memories of being electrocuted, but I never dreamed of walking on the Moon."



"This is the only logical interpretation of why no photographs exist of me walking on the moon, and why NASA lost all the videotapes and data tapes from Apollo," Armstrong admitted.

Overheard during his constant pee breaks, the Apollo 11 commander kept muttering to himself, "Why didn't the LEM have a rocket exhaust on the moon? Dumb fucks!"



Amstrong was swayed by PirateNews' use of videos, photographs and quotes from NASA employees to highlight NASA's many blatant fallacies.

"I mean, why did NASA name Apollo for Satan in Revelation 9:11? Does nobody read the freakin' Bible? As a Freemason, I was sworn to be killed if I ever revealed the secrets of our Satanic ritual on the 'moon', or to testify against any Mason in court. No shit," Armstrong laughed nervously.



Although Armstrong confessed he refused to swear on a Bible that he walked on the Moon, he was finally admitting the Truth, before The Great Architect Lucifer takes his immortal soul back to Bohemian Grove.



While Armstrong felt the effects of zero gravity while floating in Low Earth Orbit, he now believed his memory must be flawed, and was merely soaring through the Earth's atmosphere on a Boeing Vomit Comet, with his capsule dropped out of a C130 by parachute. "That's the only way we could land beside an aircraft carrier...slow fucks," the Naval aviator bragged.

He also admitted feeling "ashamed" that he had failed to notice the rippling of the Masonic flag he and Colonel Buzz Aldrin planted on the surface, blaming his lack of awareness on the bulkiness of the spacesuit and his excitement about not having to naplam little children.



"That rippling is not possible in the vacuum of space," the Korean War bomber pilot said. "It must have been the wind from an air-conditioning duct that I didn't recognize because you can't hear a damn thing inside those helmets. Or maybe that sour Kraut Von Braun was farting his ass off again. Other astronots could hear the lunar rover motor 'without an atmosphere' on the moon, but not me. That's because I lost my hearing while bombing little yellow soldiers. They looked so funny exploding in the air," he explained, while waving his hands wildly.

"They told us to kill, and we did, every day. Damn military draft. At least I wasn't crawling in the mud with the jarheads," the Naval officer smirked.


Moon map shows gamma radiation

"This is all just common sense, people," he added. "It's The Moon. You can't land on the fucking Moon, it's covered in deadly gamma radiation. I'm a freakin' aeronautical engineer, but NASA didn't even warn us about that back in '69. Bastards! I'm lucky they didn't kill me like they killed Gus and the crew of Apollo 1, and a dozen other Apollo astronots murdered on Earth during Apollo. Van Braun told me he should be in jail and I should be dead on the 'moon'. Holy shit! Holy mother of fuck!"


NASA's fake moon rock made of petrified wood

In a symbolic display of his scientific skepticism, Armstrong then grabbed a collection of "moon rocks" he was trying to sell as souvenirs and dramatically dumped them into a trash can. "I might as well after recent FBI SWAT raid on one of my 'moon' rock customers," Armstrong replied.

One of the main arguments posited on Lee's website—that America could not, in 1969, have realistically possessed the technological or ethical capabilities needed to put a man on the moon—was reportedly one of the first things to cause the legendary astronaut a pang of doubt they could get away with it.


John Lee built this 450 mph Lancair jetprop

Despite having spent thousands of hours training for the historic mission under the guidance of the world's top Nazi scientists, Shriners and military combat pilots, Armstrong said he knew the conspiracy "theories" were true after learning that website author Lee was "quite the engineering student—a pilot who built his own million-dollar jet aircraft from scratch, a world-class racing driver competing against British royalty and Indy 500 winners on TV, a soldier whose job for the U.S. government was bombing U.S. military bases with controlled demolitions of 100 nuclear bombs, and a Hollywood-award-winning TV producer and radio host."



"Fucking Hell. He's an American badass!"



"I mean, NASA paid $7,000 for my star on Hollywood's Walk Of Fame, but John Lee actually won an award on Hollywood's Walk Of Fame. Excuse me, TWO awards. I didn't win shit," Armstrong explained. "I quit NASA after Apollo 11 to go back to school. Those Nazis at NASA scare the Hell out of me! Von Braun killed 25,000 slaves in his underground rocket lair at Nordhausen, then moved next door to John Lee in North Carolina. That's some fucked up shit."



"Yes, at the time I thought those thousands of NASA employees were working round the clock for the same 'unbelievable' goal, but if anyone would know what was really going on, it would be John Lee," Armstrong said of the 50-year-young photojournalism/engineering student, a Pentagon whistleblower who got a job offer from Secretary of War Dick Cheney for filing criminal charges against his commanding officers and leading a successful mutiny during Desert Storm.

"Lee flew to Cape Kennedy and watched the launch of Apollo 17, inspected the launching pads and gift shop, studied every inch of the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in D.C., worked on rockets and missiles from grade school through the Air Force, and knows a lot more about faked moon landings than I ever could. His wife worked and lived inside an ICBM rocket bunker for Christ's sake! He's even featured on History Channel alot more than I am, since I refused to give them an interview. He's been researching the subject on the DARPAnet for years."



"Literally years," Armstrong added. "And he's webmaster for AmericanAutobahn.com, as seen on History Channel at 212 miles per hour on a public highway, at night, in the rain, 100% legal. I'd trade my left nut and my X15 world record to do that!"

Addressing another inconsistency brought to light by Pirate News, Armstrong explained he was probably so focused on not crashing the lunar module again that he failed to notice that one of the moon rocks visible in footage of the landing appears to have the letter "C" painted on it. An emotional Armstrong said that the only possible explanation for this detail was that the rock actually came from Stanley Kubrick's prop department.





"Holy flaming fuck, they forgot to turn it over," the nutty professor said, removing his bifocals to wipe away tears. "Those lying fucks at NASA went through all the trouble to fake the moon landing, but they forgot to turn over one little prop 'rock' that looks like a paper bag. And now the whole damn thing's blowing up in their faces," he chuckled while blowing Coke through his nose.

"But that lunar lander was impossible to fly in the Real World. I crashed twice on Earth, saved only by my ejection seat. There's no effin' ejection seat on the Moon! I see why Gus hung a lemon on his Apollo capsule, just minutes before he got burned up. Fuckin' starwhackers! But those simulators looked so freakin' real!"


Neil Armstrong gets drunk at 20th Anniversary party to celebrate faking the moon landings

Although Armstrong initially awoke screaming drenched in sweat after questioning why the U.S. would attempt such an elaborate cover-up, he cited one overarching explanation provided by Lee: that it was a ploy to merge USA with the Soviet Union and fulfill the Illuminati's plan to unify the world's jewish banks and create a Communist/fascist/Sstanic New World Order totalitarian dictatorship, then genocide 95% of humans to build a transhuman race of immortal humanoid robots to lord over their GMO slaves.


The private foreign "Federal" Reserve Bank is owned by the German Nazi queen of England and Bohemian Grove and counterfeits all so-called "US dollar bills" out of thin air then loans them to the federal government at interest, then steals 100% of fed income taxes to pay interest on the federal government's "debt".

"Did you ever see Zardoz?" Armstrong asked. "That shit is real! Reminds me of that giant Owl of Bohemia at the Grove. I still have nightmares about it. I keep hearing, 'ZARDOZ, ZARDOZ, ZARDOZ'. Then Sean Connery wants me to hold his dick...The NASA shrink said that's normal, everybody dreams that."



"Apollo 18 was the first time NASA admitted we were teamed with Communist Russia in Apollo, but the sheeple forget all that. Why would the Ruskies blow the whistle when they're on the team? A new scifi movie, 'Apollo 18', proves the average idiot or news reporter can't find Google, and would rather play make believe that space aliens live on the Moon. Ha!"



"Just ask John Lee," Armstrong said. "He'll answer any questions you have. Or better yet, go to PirateNews.org. They've got a great daily news feed that blows away any other news site on the planet. I get all my news from Pirate News!"


Pirate News wins again in Hollywood


To conclude the press conference, Armstrong showed reporters video footage of an Apollo LEM blasting off from the moon to demonstrate that the most damning evidence was "right under our noses." Speeding up the tape and replaying the "blast off" several times in a row, Armstrong explained that the iconic images of humanity's triumphant departure from the moon failed to show a flaming rocket exhaust. "How in the world could Kubrick fuck that up? Sure the dude smoked a lot of dope, but he said he could handle it. He did the same damn thing in '2001'. At Bohemian Grove Stan kept saying, 'The people are too stupid to notice. Now hold my dick while I pee on this redwood tree.'"



"NASA made too many mistakes, now it's all falling apart. That fucking illegal alien Obama cancelled the entire manned space program, including the Constellation 'return' to the Moon, yet keeps bragging about a manned flight to Mars. Bullshit!"


Hole in 1 Martian crater and giant golf course

"The Commie Chinese now own America, and even rewrote the script for Red Dawn in Hollywood," Armstrong raged while throwing his empty soda can at a passing cockroach.



"In the Korean War I killed alot of Commies for Mommy, then NASA made them part of the Apollo program! As a soldier, I take orders, even illegal ones, because I don't want to get fragged like Pat Fuckin' Tillman. The assholes didn't even have a single photo of me walking on the moon. Guess I should've held Nixon's dick at Bohemian Grove. But that whole Necrophilia Room thing freaked me out! I laughed my ass off when he resigned, but Watergate had nothing to do with it -- Halderman wrote that Nixon's Plumbers whacked JFK. I mean, if they can shoot a president in front of a police station and get away with it on live TV, who the fuck am I?"



"The fuckin' Military-Industrial Complex...When I read Operation Northwoods, how NASA would blame the Commies if John Glenn blew up again on the launch pad, and all those other false-flag "terrorist" acts by the U.S. government against our own citizens, and even hiring enemy soldiers to attack US military bases to start a world war...what other explanation could there be?" Armstrong warned. "It's all right here. Everything is all right here if you'd just open your damn eyes and see!"

Added Armstrong, "Jesus H. Christ in a chickenbasket. I suppose it really was one small step for man, one giant lie for mankind. Bart Sibrel is right and Buzz is an alcoholic. Fuck those CIA starwhackers. What can they do to me? The duck is in the noose. The fucking Moon!"

UPDATE: Neil Armstrong was assassinated by medical doctors shortly after this interview. A confidential source claimed they "accidentally botched" the heart bypass surgery, citing the fact that MDs are the leading cause of death in USA -- "you can't prove anything, hahahaha!"







Neil Armstrong practices faking the moon landing in Building 9 at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center

HUFFINGTON POST EULOGY DISPLAYS ZERO PHOTOS OF NEIL ARMSTRONG ON MOON IN 22-SHOT SLIDESHOW

by David Bauder
Huffington Post
08/26/12

NEW YORK -- By the yardstick of history, Neil Armstrong was among the most accomplished men ever to walk on the planet that he looked upon from afar one magical week in July 1969.

Television news didn't seem to fully recognize the importance of the first human to walk on the moon on the weekend he died.

In the hours after Armstrong's death was announced, news networks were airing canned programming – jailhouse documentaries, a rerun interview with Rielle Hunter, Mike Huckabee's weekend show. Menacing satellite pictures of Tropical Storm Isaac had much more air time than Armstrong's dusty hops on the lunar surface. Talk of the upcoming GOP national convention sucked up the air.

A trio of factors played in to the lack of attention.

First, Armstrong died in Cincinnati on a Saturday. Not just any Saturday, when news organizations have a skeletal staff, but a late August weekend. Half the country is at the beach. It's not a stretch to think inexperience on duty might have played a role in NBC News' embarrassing gaffe: a website headline that read: "Astronaut Neil Young, first man to walk on the moon, dies at age 82." (NBC called it a staffer error and said the mistake was taken down after seven minutes.)

His death came as somewhat of a surprise, too. Everyone dies, of course, and most news organizations have prepared material on hand to mark the passing of famous people. In many cases, though, there is advance word that someone is very ill, giving the media a chance to prepare and plan.

Armstrong's determined effort to live a quiet, private life after his astronaut days also left TV at a disadvantage. There was relatively little tape on hand to roll from interviews reminiscing about his experiences, reunions with old astronauts or public appearances. No Armstrong chats with David Letterman. No appearances in music videos. There was the moon walk, and not much else.

Notable deaths often give viewers the chance to reflect, to put into perspective lives of great accomplishment or great notoriety.

Not so with Neil Armstrong. His death was like his life: strangely muted given the magnitude of his achievements.


Neil Armstrong Memorial service fails to show photo of Armstrong walking on Moon

"The astronaut, who radioed the famous "one giant leap" line, died of surgery complications. Neil Armstrong, 82, died Saturday after surgery earlier this month for blocked arteries. A fighter pilot in the Korean War, a test pilot and an engineering professor, he will also be remembered as the astronaut who fulfilled the goal that President John F. Kennedy set out — to put a man on the moon by end of the 1960's — and the first among equals in the pantheon of astronauts from the moon race. Armstrong flew dangerous mission attacking bridges during the Korean War, piloted the experimental X-15 rocket plane that ascended to the edges of space and once returned to the office after ejecting from a crashed test lunar lander, famously to complete paperwork. Armstrong taught engineering at University of Cincinnati from 1971 to 1979, after retiring, from NASA."
-Dan Vergano, USA TODAY, Neil Armstrong, first man to walk on moon, dead at 82, 25 August 2012

"The Apollo 11 commander, who died of complications from cardiovascular surgery, will be buried at sea."
-ABC News, Neil Armstrong honoured in Washington memorial service, 14 Sept 2012

"Because bypass operations are a type of open-heart surgery they come with risks. According to the Mayo Clinic, the most common complications during or following coronary bypass surgery are bleeding and arrhythmias (heart rhythm irregularities). If a blood clot breaks loose soon after surgery, there is also a risk of a heart attack, though this complication is less common. Other less common risks include: kidney failure, infections of the surgery wound, temporary memory loss or muddled thinking, and stroke. 'In an otherwise acceptable health patient in this age range, I would expect a mortality rate of around 2 percent,' said Dr. Jeffrey Everett, a cardiothoracic surgeon at The University of Tennessee Medical Center, referring to Armstrong and bypass surgery."
-Fox News, Neil Armstrong: An uncommon man with a commonly deadly disease, August 27, 2012

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/08/27/neil-armstrong-uncommon-man-with-commonly-deadly-disease/#ixzz26Zb3WOTF

“I’m very concerned that the new plan, as I understand it, will prohibit us from having human access to low-earth orbit on our own rockets and spacecraft until the private aerospace industry is able to qualify their hardware under development as rated for human occupancy. With regard to President Obama’s 2010 plan, I have yet to find a person in NASA, the Defense Department, the Air Force, the national academies, industry or academia that had any knowledge of the plan prior to its announcement.'
-Neil Armstrong, CNS News, Obama’s NASA Plan a ‘Blueprint for a Mission to Nowhere’

"Private contractors are whacking people like crazy over for the CIA. It seems to have marked the first time the U.S. government outsourced a covert assassination service to private enterprise. Running operations through Blackwater gave the CIA the power to have people abducted, or killed, with no one in the government being exactly responsible. The program was kept from Congress for seven years. And when Leon Panetta told legislators about it in 2009, he revealed that the CIA had hired the private security firm Blackwater to help run it. Enrique Prado, a high-ranking CIA-officer-turned-Blackwater-employee, oversaw assassination units for both the CIA and the contractor. A federal organized crime squad run out of the Miami-Dade Police Department produced an investigation allegedly tying Prado to seven murders carried out while he worked as a bodyguard for a narco crime boss. At the time, the CIA declared him unavailable for questioning; the investigation was shut down before he was arrested or tried. While Blackwater's covert unit began as a Bush administration story, President Obama now owns it. In 2010, his administration intervened on behalf of the Blackwater executives indicted for weapons trafficking, filing motions to suppress evidence on the grounds that it could compromise national security. The administration then awarded Blackwater (which is now called Academi) a $250 million contract to perform unspecified services for the CIA. At the same time, Obama has publicly taken responsibility for some lethal operations -- the Navy SEALs' sniper attack on Somali pirates, the raid on bin Laden. His aides have also said that he reviews target lists for drone strikes. The president's actions give him the appearance of a man who wants the best of both worlds. He appears as a tough, resolute leader when he announces his role in killings that will likely be popular -- a pirate, a terrorist. But the apparatus for less accountable killings grinds on."
-The Atlantic, How to Get Away With Murder in America: The Terrifying Background of the Man Who Ran a CIA Assassination Unit, 18 Jul 2012

"A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II or Korea. Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence – economic, political, even spiritual – is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society. In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together. Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades. In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government. Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present – and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite."
-President General Dwight D. Eisenhower, farewell address in 1961

"In the early 1960s, America's top military leaders reportedly drafted plans to kill innocent people and commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities to create public support for a war against Cuba. Code named Operation Northwoods, the plans reportedly included the possible assassination of Cuban émigrés, sinking boats of Cuban refugees on the high seas, hijacking planes, blowing up a U.S. ship, and even orchestrating violent terrorism in U.S. cities. The plans were developed as ways to trick the American public and the international community into supporting a war. America's top military brass even contemplated causing U.S. military casualties, writing: 'We could blow up a U.S. ship in Guantanamo Bay and blame Cuba,' and, 'casualty lists in U.S. newspapers would cause a helpful wave of national indignation.' The Joint Chiefs even proposed using the potential death of astronaut John Glenn during the first attempt to put an American into orbit as a false pretext for war with Cuba, the documents show. Should the rocket explode and kill Glenn, they wrote, "the objective is to provide irrevocable proof … that the fault lies with the Communists."
-ABC News, U.S. Military Wanted to Provoke War With Cuba, 1 May 2001

"There are famously no good photos of Neil Armstrong on the Moon. The reason no proper photos were taken of Neil Armstrong on the moon, was because Neil had the camera most of the time, so there are plenty of shots of Buzz but almost none of Armstrong. After getting hold of a highest resolution scan possible of the famous Buzz Aldrin Visor Shot, I cropped out the Visor part and set about stretching and manipulating the image to overcome the spheracle effect of the visor, I then had to correct the color away from the Gold sheen that the visor had. Lastly the image was flipped to show how Neil actually would have looked rather than his mirror image. Thanks to a good friend of Moonpans, Steven Smith, Neil Armstrong himself was presented with a small photo of the new shot, much to Neil's pleasent surprise [40 years after Apollo 11]."
-Moonpans.com, selling Apollo photoshopped prints, These are the only 2 photos of Neil Armstrong on the Lunar Surface

"As for walking on the moon, sometimes I wonder if that really happened. I can honestly say, and it's a great surprise to me, that I have never had a dream about being on the moon. It's a great disappointment to me."
-Lt Neil Armstrong, One Giant Leap: Apollo 11, page 303

"You do not deserve answers!"
-Neil Armstrong, Astronots Gone Wild

"When I was at the Bohemian Grove, Neil Armstrong was there, just a year after he stepped on the moon. His speech by the lake was called 'The Food of The Future: Oil'. Honestly! Even the fat cats around me were moaning on their way back to peeing on the redwoods. I was more disappointed that Armstrong never mentioned the Moon once."
—Amazon.com review of Hollyweird's mockumentary "Teddy Bears' Picnic" about Satanic Bohemian Grove presidential retreat and homosexual nudist colony

"One giant blunder for mankind: how NASA lost moon pictures. Originally stored at Goddard, the tapes were moved in 1970 to the US National Archives. No one knows why, but in 1984 about 700 boxes of space flight tapes there were returned to Goddard. 'We have the documents to say they were withdrawn, but no one knows exactly where they went,' SAID John Sarkissian, a CSIRO scientist stationed at Parkes radi otelescope. Many people involved had retired or died. Also among tapes feared missing are the original recordings of the other five Apollo moon landings."
http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/one-giant-blunder-for-mankind-how-nasa-lost-moon-pictures/2006/08/04/1154198328978.html
http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/2006-08-13-apollo-11-tapes_x.htm
http://www.thelivingmoon.com/47john_lear/02files/Lunar_Orbiter_Tapes_Found.html

"Aaron's right about NASA erasing these tapes. How do you erase the most historic tapes in 2,000 years?"
-Geraldo Rivera, Fox News, Moon Landing Hoax, 19 July 2009

"The Moon is a bright gamma-ray source. The Moon is brighter than the Sun in gamma rays. The Moon is exposed to cosmic rays and solar flares. When cosmic rays hit the ground, they produce a dangerous spray of secondary particles right at your feet, and trigger little nuclear reactions that release more radiation in the form of neutrons. The lunar surface itself is radioactive!"
-Dr Robert Naeye PhD, NASA GLAST Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope, "Solar System: Sun, Moon, and Earth", 23 Aug 2007
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/solar_system.html

"No manned spacecraft now exists that can withstand the radiation from the Van Allen belts, through which a craft must traverse to make it to the Moon."
-SpaceCast News Service, March 9, 1998
http://spacedaily.com/news/lunar-98h.html

Initiation rituals of Freemasonry:
"I will obey all signs and summons handed to me by a chapter of Masons. I will assist a Mason when I see him engaged in any difficulty whether he be right or wrong. I promise and swear to forever conceal and never reveal any of the secrets of Masons or Masonry under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across from ear to ear, my tongue plucked out by the roots; my heart taken from under my left breast; my body cut across, my bowels taken out; my body dissected into four equal parts to hang and remain a terror to all those who shall presume to violate the sacred obligation of a Mason."
-President John Quincy Adams, founder of Anti-Masonic Party, "Letters on Freemasonry"
http://texemarrs.com

"You must conceal all crimes of your brother Masons, and should you be summoned as a witness against a brother Mason be always sure to shield him. It may be perjury to do this, it is true, but you're keeping your obligations."
-Ronayne Handbook of Masonry, page 183

"And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. This is the great dragon of chapter 12, Satan or Azazel. He has a number of names, but in each case, he is the king of all the demons, Lucifer, who became Satan."
-Revelation 9:11, Christian Bible, KJV with Forerunner Commentary

"LUCIFER, the Light-bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not!"
-General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, page 321

"When a mason learns the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mystery of his craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step upward, he must prove his ability to properly apply energy."
-Manly P. Hall,33°, The Lost Key of Freemasonry, p.48

"The Blue Degrees are but the court of portico (porch) of the Temple. Part of the symbols are displayed there to the initiate, but he is intentionally mislead by false interpretations. It is not intended that he shall understand them; but it is intended that he shall imagine that he understands them. Their true explication is reserved for the Adept, the Princes of Masonry."
-General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite

"If your wife child, or friend should ask you anything about your invitation - as for instance, if your clothes were taken off, if you were blind folded, if you had a rope tied around you neck, etc, you must conceal. Hence of course you must deliberately lie about it. It is part of your obligation."
-General Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, p. 74

"In willful violation whereof may I incur the fearful penalty of having my eyeballs pierced to thru center with a three edged blade, my feet flayed and forced to walk the hot sands upon the sterile shores of the red sea until the flaming Sun shall strike with a livid plague, and my Allah the god of Arab, Moslem and Mohammedan, the god of our fathers, support me to the entire fulfillment of the same."
-oath of obligation, Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine ("Shriners")

"The Third World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences caused by the "agentur" of the "Illuminati" between the political Zionists and the leaders of Islamic World. The war must be conducted in such a way that Islam (the Moslem Arabic World) and political Zionism (the State of Israel) mutually destroy each other. Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion. We shall unleash the Nihilists and atheists, and we shall provoke a formidable social cataclysm which in all its horror will show clearly to the nations the effect of absolute atheism, origin of savagery and of the most bloody turmoil. Then everywhere, the citizens, obliged to defend themselves against the world minority of revolutionaries, will exterminate those destroyers of civilization, and the multitude, disillusioned with Christianity, whose deistic spirit will from that moment be without a compass (direction), anxious for an ideal, but without knowing where to render its adoration, will receive the pure light through the universal manifestation of the pure doctrine of Lucifer, brought finally out in the public view, a manifestation which will result from the general reactionary movement which will follow the destruction of Christianity and atheism, both conquered and exterminated at the same time."
-Albert Pike, jewish pope of Freemasonry, author of the Masonic bible Morals and Dogma, on a plan for world conquest, written in a letter to Mafia founder Mazzini in Italy, dated August 15, 1871

"Thirty-third degree Freemason Albert Pike (1809-1891), the man destined to develop the Luciferian Doctrine for the Masonic hierarchy, could not accept that Lucifer and Satan were the same personality. While teaching his beliefs to a select few in the Supreme Council, Pike became the most powerful Mason in the world. Although an obscure general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, he was hardly inconspicuous in Freemasonry. From 1859 until his death in 1891, Pike occupied simultaneously the positions of Grand Master of the Central Directory at Washington, D.C., Grand Commander of the Supreme Council at Charleston, S.C., and Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry. He was an honorary member of almost every Supreme Council in the world, personally receiving 130 Masonic degrees. Pike also was one of the most physically and morally repulsive individuals in American history. Weighing well over three hundred pounds, his sexual proclivity was to sit naked astride a phallic throne in the woods, accompanied by a gang of prostitutes. To these orgies he would bring one or more wagon loads of food and liquor, most of which he would consume over a period of two days until he passed into a stupor. In his adopted state of Arkansas, Pike was well known as a practitioner of Satanism, Portraits of his later years show him wearing a symbol of the Baphomet around his neck."
-Scarlet and the Beast, John Daniel, vol 1

"Masonry gives rogues and evil-minded characters an opportunity of visiting upon their devoted victim, all the ills attending combined power, when exerted to accomplish destruction. It works unseen, at all silent hours, and secret times and places; and, like death when summoning his diseases, pounces upon its devoted subject, and lays him prostrate in the dust. Like the great enemy of man, it has shown its cloven foot, and put the public upon its guard against its secret machinations."
-CAPT. WM. MORGAN'S ILLUSTRATIONS OF MASONRY, 1827 (Capt Morgan was kidnapped and ritually murdered by Freemasons for publishing this book, resulting in the Anti Masonic Party founded by President John Quincy Adams)

"The Oath of Fealty I bind my blood in Satan's hands, All this that lieth betwixt my hands To thee, the Beast, and thy control, I pledge me; body, mind, and soul. Pledge I swear to work my Work abhorred, Careless of all but one reward, The pleasure of the Devil our Lord."
—Aleister "The Beast 666" Crowley 33° Grand Inspector General Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and Frater Superior Baphomet XI°, SATANIC EXTRACTS
http://the7thfire.com/new_world_order/Freemasonry/aliester_crowley_33_degree_Mason_knew_about_human_sacrifice.htm

"But the bloody sacrifice, though more dangerous, is more efficacious; and for nearly all purposes human sacrifice is the best. For the highest spiritual working one must accordingly choose that victim which contains the greatest and purest force. A male child of perfect innocence and high intelligence is the most satisfactory and suitable victim."
—Aleister Crowley, MAGICK in Theory and Practice

GEORGE W BUSH IS GRANDSON OF SATANIST ALEISTER CROWLEY
http://www.rense.com/general77/acrow.htm

"The true name of Satan is, the Kallaists say, is that of Yahweh reversed; for Satan is not a black god, but the negation of God. The Devil is the personification of Atheism and Idoltry. For the Initiates, this is not a Person, but a Force, created for good; but which may serve for evil. It is the instrument for Liberty or Free Will. They represent this Force, which presides over the physical generation, under the mythological and horned form of the God Pan; hence came the he-goat of the Sabbat, brother of the Ancient Serpant, and the Light-Bearer, or Phosphor of which the poets have made the false Lucifer of the legend."
-General Albert Pike (jewish Masonic pope), "Morals and Dogma of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry", page 102

"There is in nature a one most potent force, by means whereof a single man, who could posses himself of it, and should know how to direct it, could revolutionize and change the face of the world. It is a universal agent, whose supreme law is equilibrium; and whereby, if science can but learn how to control it, it can be possible to change the order of the seasons, to produce in night the phenomenon of day, to send a thought in an instant around the world, to heal or slay at a distance, to give our words universal success, and made them reverberate everywhere. The Gnostics held that it was adorned in the secret rites of the Sabbat or the Temple, under the hieroglyphic figure of the Baphomet or the hermaphroditic goat of Mendes."
-General Albert Pike, "Morals and Dogma of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry", page 734

"Freemasons have long been accused of Satanic practices as seen in the illustration of the Baphomet from Leo Taxil's The Mysteries of Freemasonry, 1897. Source: Archives of the Supreme Council, S.J., 33°"
-Scottish Rite Journal, "I Was Called a Satanist Today," Feb 2002
http://www.srmason-sj.org/web/journal-files/Issues/Feb02/moss.htm

"'People are too trusting, people don't ask the right questions.' Sometimes, being too trusting was equated with being too dumb. But sometimes when he would say that and say, 'People don't ask the right questions,' it was almost with a sense of regret, as if he were uneasy with what he was part of, and wished that people would challenge it and maybe not be so trusting."
-Dr. Lawrence Dunegan MD, quoting Dr. Richard Day MD who was director of a corporation paid $1-billion by the U.S. Govt to successfully genocide 100-million U.S. citizens, New Order of the Barbarians

"The total number of deaths caused by conventional medicine is 783,936 per year. The American medical system is the leading cause of death and injury in the US. Leape's drug error rate would add another 216,000 deaths, for a total of 999,936. Our estimated 10-year total of 7.8 million iatrogenic deaths is more than all the casualties from all the wars fought by the US throughout its entire history, equivalent to six jumbo jets falling out of the sky each day."
—Gary Null PhD; Carolyn Dean MD ND; Martin Feldman MD; Debora Rasio MD; Dorothy Smith PhD, "Death by Medicine", March 2004 (plus 1-Million annual aborticides in USA)
http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/mar2004_awsi_death_01.htm


"The British National Health Service (NHS) — the epitome of socialized medicine — may be prematurely ending the lives of as many as 130,000 elderly patients annually, a top physician told the Royal Society of Medicine in London. Patrick Pullicino, a consultant neurologist for East Kent Hospitals and professor of clinical neurosciences at the University of Kent, said a controversial end-of-life care method called the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) now used in British hospitals has become an “assisted death pathway rather than a care pathway,” according to a report in the Daily Mail. “If we accept the Liverpool Care Pathway we accept that euthanasia is part of the standard way of dying as it is now associated with 29 per cent of NHS deaths,” Pullicino declared, referring to statistics showing that of the 450,000 annual deaths of patients under NHS care, about 130,000 are of patients who were on the LCP. It rapidly became fashionable: recognized as a model for the NHS in 2001; approved by NICE [the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, which rations care on a cost-benefit basis] as a recommended practice in 2004; and a 2006 health white paper said it should be adopted across the country. Its use spread from cancer sufferers to all patients. Doctors are supposed to identify a patient who is bound to die in the near future. The plan then can include withdrawal of treatment, including the provision of water and nourishment by tube. Patients are typically heavily sedated. The LCP’s quick adoption by the NHS and NICE represented “euthanasia by the back door,” in the words of the Telegraph’s Gerald Warner. “In 2007–08,” he wrote, “16.5 percent of deaths in Britain resulted from continuous deep sedation — twice the rate of the Netherlands with its notorious culture of death and legalized euthanasia.” Pullicino, according to the Mail, recalled taking a 71-year-old patient off the LCP, after which the man lived another 14 months, mostly at home, “at considerable cost to the NHS and the taxpayer.” (He died after being admitted to the hospital for pneumonia and put back on the LCP.) Other doctors have recounted similar experiences. Dr. Peter Hargreaves, a consultant in palliative medicine at St. Luke’s Cancer Center in Guildford, told the Telegraph in 2009 that “he had personally taken patients off the pathway who went on to live for ‘significant’ amounts of time.” Hargreaves worried that the LCP could “become a self-fulfilling prophecy” because doctors would make the determination as to which patients were likely to die and then, by withdrawing lifesaving treatment and heavily sedating them, guarantee that they would die."
-The New American, "Doctor: British Health Service Euthanizes 130,000 Patients a Year," 20 June 2012
http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/11796-doctor-british-health-service-euthanizes-130000-patients-a-year

50% of doctors and nurses still don't wash their hands.
http://women.webmd.com/news/20040706/study-doctors-dont-wash-hands-enough
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article5375084.ece

Nurses Did Not Wash Hands, Blamed for Deaths of 90 British Patients
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,301482,00.html

247 Americans Die Every Day from Doctors not Washing Their Hands
http://www.naturalnews.com/027981_doctors_hand_washing.html

"Harold Shipman, the British family doctor who murdered more than 200 of his patients to become one of the worst serial killers of all time, hanged himself in his prison cell. Shipman was sentenced to life imprisonment in January 2000 for the murder of 15 female patients. An inquiry concluded that he was responsible for the deaths by lethal injection of at least another 200 patients."
—Reuters, "Britain's worst serial killer Dr 'Death' dies in prison," Jan 13, 2004
abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1024925.htm

Merck brags Vioxx killed more people than Americans killed in the Vietnam War
ktradionetwork.com/2009/11/25/vioxx-scandal-news/

"If we do a great job on vaccines, we can lower global population."
-Billionaire Bill Gates, T.E.D. Con
http://www.fireflyfans.net/mthread.aspx?bid=18&tid=42117#762472

Hussein Obama refuses flu vaccine
youtube.com/watch?v=UQeGhblzP-Y
youtube.com/watch?v=4RlVeJNT0QM

WHO chief refuses flu vaccine
google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5irACiJBJQIdVCWQoIVvGqw-rMyvQ

Live H1N1 flu vaccine is contagious for 3 weeks
youtube.com/watch?v=NeHAwgotNn0

"We believe that within a period of five to ten years, it would be possible to produce a synthetic biological agent that does not naturally exist and for which no natural immunity could have been acquired. It would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could be different in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organism. It might be damaging to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease. A research program to explore feasibility could be completed in approximately five years at a cost of $10 million. Many believe such research should not be undertaken, lest it lead to yet another method of mass killing of large populations."
—Dr Donald MacArthur, Dept of the Army, ARPA, SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICAL AGENTS HOUSE BILL 15090, Subcommittee of the APPROPRIATIONS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, July 1, 1969, testimony on June 9, 1969
boydgraves.com

"The invention relates to a pathogenic mycoplasma isolated from patients with Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS."
—US Patent 5,242,820
gulfwarvets.com/mycoplas.htm

"A total population of 250-300 million people, a 95% decline from present levels, would be ideal."
-Ted Turner, founder of CNN News who was paid $3-billion salary tax-free in one day and owns 1,910,000 acres (more land in USA than any other US citizen), father of 5 kids, Bilderberg Secret Society
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1070329053600562261

"Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature."
-Georgia Guidestones
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_Guidestones
teapacks.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/g1.jpg

Dr Rima Laibow MD: "The mass culling is about to begin."
youtube.com/watch?v=4Az0csNr5B0
sweetliberty.org/nobarbarians1.htm

"The nation’s largest abortion provider topped $1 billion in total net assets in 2009-2010, its first time reaching that mark, according to Planned Parenthood’s latest annual report. Almost half of the group’s annual revenue — 46 percent — comes from taxpayers in the form of grants, contracts and Medicaid payments, according to an analysis by the anti-abortion group Susan B. Anthony List."
-The Hill, Planned Parenthood tops $1 billion in assets, 12/30/11
http://thehill.com/blogs/healthwatch/abortion/201833-planned-parenthood-tops-1-billion-in-assets

"In a lengthy interview with Bill Moyers released today, Microsoft billionaire Bill Gates reveals the inspiration for his funding of pro-abortion population control measures. Responding to a question by Moyers on how he came to fund “reproductive issues” Gates answered, “When I was growing up, my parents were always involved in various volunteer things. My dad was head of Planned Parenthood."
http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/2003/may/03050902

Over 50% of all black babies aborted by medical doctors in USA today
http://blackgenocide.org/home.html
http://www.maafa21.com
http://www.blackwallstreet.freeservers.com
http://www.blacksandjews.com/JewsBlackHolocaust.html

"Hello Neil and Buzz, I am speaking to you by telephone from the Oval room of the White House, and this certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made. The People have got to know, whether or not their president is a crook. Therefore, I shall resign the presidency effective at 5pm."
-President Richard "Tricky Dick" Nixon, co-author of Operation Northwoods as Vice President under jewish president Eisenhower


The Truth about the assassination of Neil Armstrong

40 tons of NASA Apollo lunar tapes found...at old McDonalds restaurant

Apollo Moonwalk Chillout MP3










How do we distinguish Truth from Lies?

"So then I said, 'Don't talk about the Apollo moon landing hoax because the public is not ready for it' and the idiots fell for it!"


And how do we determine who to trust?

by Eric Hufschmid
15 March 2007

After I wrote about the deception in the 9/11 movement, people have been asking me, "How can we figure out who to trust?"

The truth can be placed in the open; exposed naked to the entire world. The truth does not need any laws to protect it, and it does not need secrecy to protect it. The truth does not need evidence destroyed, nor does it need videotapes to be confiscated.

Only lies need secrecy; only lies need protection from laws. Only lies benefit from fear, secrecy, blackmail, gossip, and confiscation of evidence.

For example, to determine the truth about the 9/11 attack, we only have to bring out all of the video recordings, the photographs, the rubble from the World Trade Center, the seismic data, and the testimony of the witnesses. By letting us see everything, we will eventually figure out what happened and who is a liar.

However, the media and government are suppressing some video recordings, witnesses, scientific analyses, and people (such as myself). The government also destroyed most of the rubble from the towers, and there are accusations that they destroyed other evidence also. This destruction of evidence is proof that they are hiding something.

Nobody destroys evidence or suppresses people if they are trying to spread the truth. The truth is supported with evidence. The more evidence we have, the more we can be certain of what the truth is. Therefore, to spread the truth, expose all evidence.

By comparison, if somebody is promoting a lie, he must suppress the particular people and information that expose the lie.

The Incubator Babies

Do you remember the stories circulating in America in 1990 about the evil Iraqi soldiers who were throwing babies out of their incubators?

There were eyewitnesses to this atrocity, such as this adorable girl who is holding back tears as she tells the world about those horrible Iraqis.

Millions of Americans were enraged that the evil Iraqis would behave in such a savage manner, and this anger helped to bring support for the war in Iraq.
The glorious, righteous Americans charged off to battle and slaughtered the evil Iraqis.

Am I allowed to ask, how many babies were thrown out of the incubator? Am I an incubator baby denier for asking such a question?

Some people claim that zero babies were thrown out of incubators, and that the entire story is a hoax in order to enrage the Americans. Here are two articles about it, in case you never heard of this:

csmonitor.com/2002/0906/p25s02-cogn.html
and:
oocities.com/CapitolHill/3589/us-iraq-lie.html

Are the people who make these accusations Incubator Baby Deniers? Should they be arrested? Should they be told to shut up?

The truth about the incubator baby story does not need laws to protect it. There is no reason to tell anybody to be quiet about it. The truth about the incubator babies will come out when we expose all evidence, not when we tell people to shut up.

Ignore the pressure to hide evidence

Lots of people and organizations claim to be "truth seekers" in regards to 9-11. However, if they were truly honest, they would encourage people to look at all of the evidence.

For example, the MoveOn organization ignores some of the most important evidence of 9-11. The Air America radio network also ignores lots of critical information and people.

It is the ordinary, unknown citizens who pass out videos, books, and web sites. If this world improves, it will be because of those unknown citizens who are ignoring the large organizations and passing out the suppressed information to their friends and neighbors.

Should I keep quiet on some issues?

Occasionally somebody will advise me to stop talking about one or both of these issues:

* The Apollo moon landing

* The Holocaust

Why should I ignore those two subjects? How does the truth on those subjects benefit by suppressing discussions of them?

I have been given two, completely different sets of reasons as to why I should remain quiet, depending on whether the person telling me to keep my mouth shut promotes the official story. The two groups of reasons are:

1) The people who tell me that Apollo astronauts really did land on the moon, and the official Holocaust story is 99% accurate, tell me to shut my mouth because...
I will ruin my reputation.

I will hurt everybody else's reputation in the 9-11 movement.

2) The people who tell me that Apollo and the Holocaust are indeed hoaxes tell me to shut my mouth because...

Most people are too stupid to understand these issues, so I would be wasting time that could be put to more productive uses.

The Zionists will attack me, maybe have me arrested, maybe kill me.

Now let's consider whether I should follow their advice and keep quiet about these issues.

Case 1: The Apollo astronauts really did land on the moon, and the official Holocaust story is at least 99% accurate.

Consider the issue of mercury dental fillings. The official story is that these fillings are safe. Will I ruin my reputation for asking questions about their safety?
Well... I will ask some questions, and then you can let me know if I just ruined my reputation.

Questions about mercury dental filling:

• Do molecules from the fillings tear off once in a while? If so, do any of those molecules get into our blood, or do they merely pass through our digestive system?
• If some mercury does get into our blood, does it cause any harm to us?

• Have fillings been proven to be 100% safe, or are they considered safe by corporate executives simply because the amount of mercury that gets into us is so small that they decided not to worry about it?

OK... I just asked some questions about mercury dental fillings. Did I ruin my reputation?

Let me now ask some questions about the Vietnam War.

Questions about the Vietnam War:

I know a man who is a few years older than me. He was drafted and sent to fight in the Vietnam war. However, he had no desire to kill Vietnamese. He did not understand why he should consider the Vietnamese to be his enemy.
He told me that in his small group of about six men, only their leader was interested in the war.

He told me that when their leader took them out into the forest, they had to pretend that they were interested in fighting the war, but often their leader would send them out on their own. This group of about 6 young men would go out into the forest, find a nice tree to sit under, relax, and often play cards.

When evening came, they would go home and tell their leader that they had killed a few Vietnamese.

There are many significant lessons to learn from this man. Two of them are:

1) Many of the deaths reported during the Vietnam War may have been phony. Some news reports claim that the American military killed 3 million Vietnamese. For all we know, most of those dead Vietnamese were "killed" by soldiers who were actually playing cards.

2) The American military believes that they were chased out of Vietnam because there was not enough support for the war among the American people, but they may have been chased out of Vietnam because most American soldiers had no interest in the war.

Now I am ready to ask my questions about the Vietnam War:

Did Americans really kill 3 million Vietnamese?

How many Vietnamese were killed by Americans, and how many were killed by other Vietnamese?

Am I anti-Vietnamese for asking those questions? Have I ruined my reputation or the reputation of other 9/11 researchers for asking those questions? Am I anti-American for asking those questions? Am I a Vietnam War Denier for asking those questions?

If it is acceptable for me to ask questions about dental fillings and the Vietnam War, why can't I ask questions about Apollo or World War II?

Case 2: Apollo and the Holocaust are indeed hoaxes.
It should be obvious that if these are hoaxes, then the pressure on me to shut my mouth is to prevent me from exposing the lies.

The truth does not need suppression

The US military has no reason to hide information about the Vietnam War... if they want the truth about the war to be known.

However, if they want to hide the truth, then they will need to suppress people, questions, and evidence. The same applies to the North Vietnamese and Chinese governments.

The only way we will really know what was going on with the Vietnam War is if all of the governments stop their suppression of information.

Governments justify their suppression of information on the grounds that they are protecting national security. In reality, every government is protecting their incompetence, their criminal activity, and their embarrassing mistakes.

It is OK to discuss the Vietnam War

There is nothing wrong with asking questions about the Vietnam War, and there is nothing wrong with asking how many people died.

There is nothing wrong with asking questions about the Civil War, either, and there's nothing wrong with asking if George Washington really did have his missing teeth replaced with pieces of wood, and whether he really did chop down a cherry tree.

So why is it wrong to ask questions about what was going on inside those Nazi prison camps? Why is it wrong to ask how many Jews died in those prison camps? If Jews have nothing to hide, why are they trying to stop people from discussing this issue? Why don't they proudly announce to the world,

"Go ahead and look closely at the Nazi prison camps. You will find that we Jews have been honest about them; that we have been telling you the truth."
I don't see how we are helping the human race by remaining silent on any issue.

Laws against Apollo Denial

What would you think if the United States government passed a law that allowed it to arrest people who did not believe Apollo astronauts landed on the moon? Would you approve of a government that put "Apollo Deniers" in jail?

Would you approve of our government arresting people who do not believe Oswald killed Kennedy? Would you support a law against "Lee Harvey Oswald Denial"?

The people who are described as "Historians" often disagree with each other on historical details. Since they can't agree on the official version, why should we expect the common people to agree? To complicate the issue, every nation has a slightly different version of history.

To add even more absurdity to this issue, history sometimes changes when a nation gets new government officials. An example is the change in Russian history when Stalin replaced Lenin.

We are not going to make our history books more accurate by arresting people who disagree with some arbitrary, official version of history.

Does any government really believe that we need laws against Holocaust Denial?

There is currently a jewish author of books on Nazi UFOs named Ernst Zundel who was arested and taken from Knoxville, Tennessee in America, sent to Canada, and then sent to Germany for a trial, supposedly because he is a Holocaust denier. In February 2007, Zundel was sent to jail for 5 years:

cbc.ca/world/story/2007/02/15/zundel-germany.html

Could any government possibly be so stupid that they believe they are helping the world by arresting "Holocaust Deniers"? I don't think so!

The arrest of Holocaust Deniers seems to be an attempt to frighten people into remaining silent about the Holocaust. And the only reason for this is because the Holocaust promoters are trying to hide something; they are trying toprotect a lie.

The truth about the Holocaust does not come out when people are arrested. Rather, lies about the Holocaust are protected when people are arrested.

The truth about the Holocaust will come out when all of the photos and information is released, and when we are allowed to discuss the information.

People who question the official story of the Holocaust are not Holocaust Deniers. Rather, they are Holocaust Truth Seekers, or HoloHoax Exposers.

Are Holocaust trials a deception?

As I mentioned in my document "To get away with crimes, pretend to be a crime fighter", the deception with 9-11 and other large crimes is much more complex than my simple example of a car thief.

Let me give you a few possible examples of what is going on with the arrest of Ernst Zundel.

• The Zionists are worried about Ernst Zundel is exposing the HoloHoax, and so they are trying to use him as an example to show us that they control the world, and we better keep our mouths shut or we will go to jail, also.

• Zundel, Germar Rudolf, and most of the other Holohoax exposers are actually Zionists, or working with the Zionists, and they have agreed to be arrested in order to create the impression that the Zionists have such incredible control over the world that they can drag HoloHoax Exposers from one country to the next, and then put them in jail.

• They use the arrest of Zundel to attract our attention while they quietly put a real HoloHoax Exposer in jail.

How do we determine if Zundel, Rudolf, or others are real HoloHoax Exposers? How do we know who to trust?

To understand this, imagine what a trial for an "Apollo Denier" would be like. For example, Richard Hoagland, who frequently appears on Coast-to-Coast AM radio, believes that Apollo astronauts landed on the moon, but that NASA faked many of the photographs in order to cover up the ancient civilizations the Apollo astronauts discovered on the moon.

Hoagland could be classified as an Apollo Denier because he is accusing NASA of faking photos, lying to the world, and covering up the greatest discovery of the human race; namely, that there are alien civilizations on both the moon and Mars.

If the government were to arrest Richard Hoagland for Denying Apollo, the trial would have to be a sham because both the government and Richard Hoagland would have to lie in order to defend themselves.

The only reason the government would want to arrest Richard Hoagland is if they wanted to frighten people into thinking that they better not disagree with the official story of the Apollo moon landing or they may end up in court.

The government would never arrest a real Apollo investigator because a real Apollo investigator would have serious evidence that the moon landing was a hoax, and the government would not want that brought out in the public.

Consider how this applies to the arrest of Holocaust Deniers:

• The Jews would never want to arrest a real Holocaust investigator because he would fight back with serious evidence.

• The only people the Jews can safely arrest for Holocaust Denial are the people who are working with the Jews to create the impression that the Jews have so much power over the world that they can arrest anybody for questioning the Holocaust.

Are the Germans as stupid as they appear?

In February 2007 a German court sentenced Zundel to jail for five years. How could the Germans be so stupid as to put an old man in jail at taxpayers expense simply because he disagrees with the official story of the Holocaust? Can't the German people think of a better way to spend their tax money?

Here are some possibilities in regards to Zundel:

• Blackmail

Perhaps Zundel is an honest citizen who questioned the Holocaust. The Zionists realized that he was a potential threat, so a few of them pretended to be his friend in order to set him up for blackmail.

Ingrid Rimland, his third wife and an American citizen, may be a Zionist. Watch this short video about her:

Holocaust-Zundel-Rivero.wmv

Perhaps the Zionists lured Zundel into doing something that he could be blackmailed over, such as pedophilia, and then they gave him an offer: either go to jail for pedophilia, or go to jail as a Holocaust denier.

Incidentally, Ingrid Rimland is a good friend of Dr. Lorraine Day. Therefore, if Rimland is a Zionist, we have to wonder if Dr. Day is also a Zionist, or if Rimland is working on ruining Dr. Day.

Since it is almost impossible to lure women into having sex with children, instead of setting Dr. Day up for pedophilia, Rimland and others Zionists may be feeding her propaganda about religion, cancer, or AIDS. If they can fool a person into promoting nonsense, that is almost as good as setting them up to be blackmailed.

• Corruption in the courts

Perhaps Zundel is an honest citizen who questioned the Holocaust. Perhaps the Jews are getting away with this absurd arrest because the Zionists within the American, Canadian, and German courts system made sure that the only people dealing with Zundel's deportation and trial were Zionists.

This would allow the Zionists to get away with what would normally be a very serious crime.

• A Crypto-Zionist

Perhaps Zundel is secretly working with the Zionists. Perhaps he agreed to be put in jail in order to frighten the Gullible Goyim.

In this case the Zionists don't have to worry about Zundel fighting the deportation or bringing up real evidence at his trial. Instead, Zundel would put up a superficial fight. (Here is one journalist who claims that Zundel is Jewish)

One Jewish newspaper, in this article, says that Zundel is not really disagreeing with the official story of the Holocaust. Rather, he simply "hates Jewish people".
Although we cannot believe the media on the Holocaust issue, especially not the Jewish reporters, it appears as if Zundel does not truly want to expose the Holocaust. Rather, he puts up only a superficial fight.

This implies that he is working with the Zionists, either because he is a Crypto-Zionist, or they have blackmailed him.

The truth seekers are not stupid

One of the peculiar aspects of most of the Holocaust investigators, 9/11 truth seekers, antiwar activists, etc., is that they talk a lot, but they don't give good arguments, and they never advocate any action.

I used to assume they were stupid, but it makes more sense to accuse them of being Crypto-Zionists or blackmail victims.

Germar Rudolf supposedly has a Ph.D. in chemistry, and he got it from a German university, not an American university. He is certain to be above average intelligence.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germar_Rudolf

In 2002, he published his analysis of the Apollo moon landing on the vho.org website (another site you should be suspicious of):
vho.org/tr/2003/1/Rudolf75-81.html

Almost all of us grew up believing that the Apollo moon landing was real. Only a few people have bothered to analyze the Apollo moon landing to determine if it was real, or if it was staged here on the Earth.

Of all the people who analyzed the Apollo moon landing, most of them come to the conclusion that it was indeed staged here on the Earth. Only a few people go so far as to publish a paper to defend the official story. Germar Rudolf is one of those very few.

I would guess that Rudolf was told to write that article, and he agreed to do it either because he is a Crypto-Zionist, or because he is one of their blackmail victims.

Incidentally, I have another Science Challenge about Apollo:
Science_Challenge_26

Stand up to the HoloHoax!

Fredrick Toben, Ernst Zundel, Germar Rudolf, and almost everybody else who is arrested for Holocaust denial seems to be either a Zionist, or one of their blackmail victims.

They allow themselves to be arrested in order to frighten the Gullible Goyim into remaining silent about the HoloHoax.

A clever trick, isn't it?

More on the possibility that David Irving is part of a Zionist trick to frighten us:
DavidIrvingHoax

More on the possibility that Zundel is part of a Zionist trick to frighten us:
Ernst-Zundel-5-years-in-jail

The real holocaust investigator seems to be Professor Robert Faurisson:
MasqueradeParty

Don't be frightened by the Holohoax arrests. What are you; a human or a mouse?

And take this issue of blackmail seriously. The Zionists are not going to sit by while people expose their crimes. When somebody tries to expose the Holocaust, 9/11, or other crimes, they will be contacted by "helpful" people and "concerned citizens". You should consider all of these people to be possible Zionists.

Deceptive Romantic Relationships

There are lots of ways to deceive people. One of the ultimate sacrifices that a Zionist can make for Israel is to form a long-term romantic relationship with a Goyim in order to manipulate him, spy on him, or set him up to be arrested.

This may have been what happened to the former New Jersey governor McGreevey. The story varies depending on the source, but everybody agrees that he resigned in Aug 2004 on the grounds that he is homosexual, and that he had an affair with a man named Golan Cipel.

Golan Cipel is an Israeli citizen (the original article has been erased, so look at the archived copy before it is erased) and a former lieutenant in the Israeli Navy. Governor McGreevey made Cipel the head of New Jersey Homeland Security.

One interesting aspect of this case is that an Israeli citizen was given an important position in America's government. How many nations allow foreign citizens to get top positions in their government?

I also find it interesting to consider that Cipel is telling the truth when he says he is heterosexual, and that Governor McGreevey is telling the truth about his homosexual affair with Cipel.

In such a case, perhaps Cipel volunteered to pretend he is homosexual in order to manipulate McGreevey into giving him a high level position in the American government.

If you are heterosexual, imagine the American government asking you to have a long-term homosexual relationship with an official from some other nation. They will set you up with the official when he arrives for a dinner, and you would have to fake a romantic interest in him. If the official likes you, you will have to move to his nation, carry on a homosexual relationship with him, and try to get into their government. Would you volunteer for that type of assignment?

Governor McGreevey resigned on the grounds that he is homosexual, but perhaps the real reason for his resignation is that he realized that he was being taken advantage of, and he could not think of any other way to get out of the mess.

He may have been told that he will be blackmailed if he sends Cipel home to Israel. Perhaps he was warned that the Mossad will arrange a suicide or a plane accident if he causes trouble for Israel. So perhaps he decided to quit politics in a manner that does not upset Israel.

How will we know the truth about that case? Simple; just bring all the information out in the open. Take a look at the lives of Cipel and McGreevey. Take a look at their friends and associates, the phone calls they made, and the flow of money.

However, as usual, the Israeli citizen quietly returned to Israel, and nobody in the USA investigated anything. Does that remind you of the five dancing Israelis who were caught on September 11th, and then were sent back to Israel?

Is Ingrid Rimland a female version of Golan Cipel?

Since an Israeli man is willing to form a homosexual relationship with a New Jersey governor in order to get into the US government, why not consider the possibility that Ingrid Rimland would form a relationship with a Holocaust investigator in order to set him up?

More about Rimland in this article:

Zion's Little Helpers, part 2

Did they destroy the Holocaust "truth movement"? Do they have a team of "Zionist whores" to set us up for blackmail, jail, or death? Do they offer free newsletters to identify their critics?
Click here

Are UFOs suppressed?
If so, does that make them true?

Since this article talks about the suppression of information as a sign of guilt, I don't want people to use it to justify UFOs.

People who promote the UFO stories tell us that the government is suppressing information about aliens, and therefore the aliens really exist.

However, I do not see any suppression of UFO information. Rather, I see the exact opposite. I see public libraries, bookstores, television programs, and movies full of UFO material.

The stories about the alien spacecraft in Roswell, New Mexico come from a couple of people who said they saw something mysterious, or found something mysterious. This is not evidence of an alien spacecraft. What is especially suspicious is that some of these UFO witnesses work for the military.

The government can fool people into promoting UFOs by creating the impression that the government is suppressing information about UFOs. Many people will jump to the conclusion that the UFOs must really exist.

How do we determine the truth in regards to UFOs and crop circles? By exposing all of the information about it. The truth about the UFOs does not need anybody to protect it, not even the UFO supporters. Both the government and the UFO supporters must show us all other information about UFOs.

However, the people who believe in UFOs have no evidence. They only have a few blurry photos, and some of them have a cousin who has a friend who met somebody on a trip who said he saw a Martian.

People who believe in crop circles have nothing but photographs of crop circles. These photographs prove that crop circles exist, but they do not prove that they were created by an alien life form. Humans can and do create crop circles, also.

You should find it peculiar that the people who promote UFOs, such as Richard Hoagland and Art Bell, also promote the official story on 9/11 and other crimes. Do you really think this is a coincidence?

Steven Greer, who has The Disclosure Project, creates the impression that he is exposing the truth about the UFOs, but I bet that if you look at him and his associates, you will find that most of them are working for some government agency or some group of criminals, and they are trying to make us look like idiots.

How do we know if I am correct about Greer? Simple; just expose all the information about him, his friends, his sources of income, and his evidence of UFOs.

If you are interested in getting to the truth, demand that the television networks put all of us on television, allow us to provide the evidence we have, and let us discuss these issues.

Have you seen these brief articles about UFOs:
• FlyingSaucers
• Space-Aliens






The Asch Experiment

by Saul McLeod
Simply Psychology
published 2008

Imagine yourself in the following situation: You sign up for a psychology experiment, and on a specified date you and seven others whom you think are also participants arrive and are seated at a table in a small room.

You don't know it at the time, but the others are actually associates of the experimenter, and their behavior has been carefully scripted. You're the only real participant.

The experimenter arrives and tells you that the study in which you are about to participate concerns people's visual judgments. She places two cards before you. The card on the left contains one vertical line. The card on the right displays three lines of varying length.

The experimenter asks all of you, one at a time, to choose which of the three lines on the right card matches the length of the line on the left card. The task is repeated several times with different cards.

On some occasions the other "participants" unanimously choose the wrong line. It is clear to you that they are wrong, but they have all given the same answer.

What would you do? Would you go along with the majority opinion, or would you "stick to your guns" and trust your own eyes?

If you where involved in this experiment how do you think you would behave? Would you conform to the majority’s viewpoint?

Solomon Asch - Conformity Experiment

Asch believed that the main problem with Sherif's (1935) conformity experiment was that there was no correct answer to the ambiguous autokinetic experiment. How could we be sure that a person conformed when there was no correct answer? Asch (1951) devised what is now regarded as a classic experiment in social psychology, whereby there was an obvious answer to a line judgment task. If the participant gave an incorrect answer it would be clear that this was due to group pressure.

Aim: Solomon Asch (1951) conducted an experiment to investigate the extent to which social pressure from a majority group could affect a person to conform.

Procedure: Asch used a lab experiment to study conformity, whereby 123 male students from Swarthmore College in the USA participated in a ‘vision test’. Using the line judgment task, Asch put a naive participant in a room with four to six confederates. The confederates had agreed in advance what their responses would be when presented with the line task. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves. Each person in the room had to state aloud which comparison line (A, B or C) was most like the target line. The answer was always obvious. The real participant sat at the end of the row and gave his or her answer last. In some trials, the seven confederates gave the wrong answer. There were 18 trials in total and the confederates gave the wrong answer on 12 trails (called the critical trials). Asch was interested to see if the real participant would conform to the majority view.
Results: Asch measured the number of times each participant conformed to the majority view. On average, about one third (32%) of the participants who were placed in this situation went along and conformed with the clearly incorrect majority on the critical trials. Over the 12 critical trials about 75% of participants conformed at least once and 25% of participant never conformed.

Conclusion: Why did the participants conform so readily? When they were interviewed after the experiment, most of them said that they did not really believe their conforming answers, but had gone along with the group for fear of being ridiculed or thought "peculiar". A few of them said that they really did believe the group's answers were correct.

Apparently, people conform for two main reasons: because they want to fit in with the group (normative influence) and because they believe the group is better informed than they are (informational influence).

Evaluation: All participants were male students who all belonged to the same age group (biased sample). The task (judging line lengths) was artificial (low in ecological validity) as it is unlikely to happen in everyday life. Therefore, it is not similar to a real life situation demonstrating conformity.

Finally, there are ethical issues: participants were not protected from psychological stress which may occur if they disagreed with the majority. Asch deceived the student volunteers claiming they were taking part in a 'vision' test; the real purpose was to see how the 'naive' participant would react to the behavior of the confederates.

The Asch (1951) study has also been called a child of its time (as conformity was the social norm in 1950’s America). The era of individualism, ‘doing your own thing’, did not take hold until the 1960s.

Perrin and Spencer (1980) carried out an exact replication of the original Asch experiment using British engineering, mathematics and chemistry students as participants. The results were clear cut: on only one out of 396 trials did a participant conform with the incorrect majority. This shows the Asch experiment has poor reliability.

Asch Conformity Video Clip
The clip below is not from the original experiment in 1951, but an acted version for television from the 1970s.

Factors Affecting Conformity

In further trials, Asch (1951) changed the procedure (i.e. independent variables) in order to investigate which factors influenced the level of conformity (dependent variable). His results and conclusions are given below:

Factors Increasing Conformity Factors Decreasing Conformity
Size of the Group

•Conformity tends to increase as the size of the group increases.
•However, there is little change in conformity once the group size reaches 4-5. With one other person (i.e. confederate) in the group conformity was 3%, with two others it increased to 13% and with three or more it was 32% (or 1/3).
•Because conformity does not seem to increase in groups larger than four, this is considered the optimal group size.

Lack of Group Unanimity / Agreement

•When one other person in the group gave a different answer from the others, and the group answer was not unanimous, conformity dropped.
•Asch (1951) found that even the presence of just one confederate that goes against the majority choice can reduce conformity as much as 80%.
•This suggests that individuals conform because they are concerned about what other people think of them (i.e. normative influence).

Difficulty of Task

•When the (comparison) lines (e.g. A, B, C) were made more similar in length it was harder to judge the correct answer and conformity increased.
•When we are uncertain, it seems we look to others for confirmation. The more difficult the task the greater the conformity.
Answer in Private

•When participants were allowed to answer in private (so the rest of the group do not know their response) conformity decreases.

•This is because there is less groups pressure and normative influence is not as powerful, as there is no fear of rejection from the group.

Status of Majority Group

•If someone is of high status (e.g. your boss) or has a lot of knowledge (e.g. your teacher), they might be more influential, and so people will conform to their opinions more (e.g. informational influence).
•The higher the status of the group the higher the level of conformity.

Further Information

Solomon Asch - Conformity


References

Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment. In H. Guetzkow (ed.) Groups, leadership and men. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press.

Perrin, S. & Spencer, C. (1980) The Asch effect: a child of its time? Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 32, 405-406.

Sherif, M., & Sherif, C. W. (1953): Groups in harmony and tension. New York: Harper & Row.

How to cite this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2008). Asch Experiment. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html

http://www.udel.edu/communication/COMM356/pavitt/chap6.htm